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HISTORY - PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE - METEOR - STELLA POLARIS - Luxury Cruising of a Past Era

The STELLA POLARIS, METEOR and PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE have been in their days the epitome of luxury cruising, a long past era.
by Earl of Cruise, text passages from Alan Dumelow
in 1900 inaugurated a new type of passenger vessel in Hamburg the PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE
ss PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE, 1900, HAPAG, the first custom build cruise vessel in history - courtesy coloured by Daryl LeBlanc, Source: Wikipedia (original seize)
The new vessel is the prototype for cruise vessels and especially all the Mega Yacht named ships, that play to be a Mega Yacht. This new type of vessel was initiated by the foreseeing genius of ALBERT BALLIN. While under construction tout Hamburg was wondering what BLOHM&VOSS was constructing for the genius ALBERT BALLIN, chairman of HAPAG. A common joke was, that he had ordered a privat yacht as he had become great-crazy. The more the small 4,409 GT vessel grew on the helling the more it was looking like a yacht for a super rich industrial, business man or aristocrat, or better a royalty. The 121,92m long vessel had the seize of and showcased a bowsprit and a gallion, uncommon in those days for trade vessels, either freight or passenger. THE features of a cutom built privat or royal yacht. It was commonly seen as oldfashioned. It was the time when everybody believed in future and progress.
The HAPAG did very well under his chairmanship, and he invented a new form of touristik venture - travelling on the seas for pleasure only, the cruise. With the outbreak of the USA-Spain war in 1898 he could sell COLUMBIA and NORMANNIA at a very good price to the Spanish Navy, as both ships despite their innovations, luxuries and success on the North Atlantic became outdated. Both liners had been following the AUGUSTA VICTORIA and did cruises in the Winter Seasons. 
HAPAG ss AUGUSTA VICTORIA
ss AUGUSTA VICTORIA made the first modern cruise in history - Source: Wikipedia (Original seize)
These four German Greyhounds had been the epitome of luxury when set sail for the first time and started a battle for luxury to attract the rich traveller on the North Atlantic.
Scientific American ss PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE
It was Albert Ballin who realized his company’s largest and flagship vessel, AUGUSTA VICTORIA, lay largely unused during the winter season. Due to inclement weather, travelers largely stayed away from the North Atlantic route. Only those who had urgent businesses ashore the other side traveld. It was then that Albert Ballin, despite criticism from his fellow directors at HAPAG and other steamship companies, planned to send AUGUSTA VICTORIA on a 58-day `pleasure voyage´ from Cuxhaven, Germany to the Mediterranean and Orient. This extended cruise would include well-planned excursions ashore to ports-of-call along the route and Albert Ballin would be as a tour guide onboard himself. The voyage was a success and similar ones were planned imediately.
This first cruise was nearly a gentlemens only cruise in the first place - perhaps these gentlemen did want to be free from their wifes for a timeperiod.
Despite their increasing success, these early cruises, called `excursions´, or `Gesellschaftsreise´ were difficult to plan with existing ships. Constructed as oceanliners, they did not meet the requirements of the pleasure-seeking market and its inventor. They offered few for cruises needed amenities aboard. This became apparent during long stretches at sea. Furthermore, their construction as multi-class vessels also proved a hindrance as such vessels provided restricted access to deck space. Whatever deck space there was, was mostly sheltered, and designed to accommodate the rigors of the North Atlantic instead of the seas of more southern climes. Albert Ballin believed that only a vessel specifically designed for cruising would be appropriate, furthermore, such a vessel could spend the entire year doing so.
In 1899, Albert Ballin became director at HAPAG and months later, in 1900, commissioned BLOHM&VOSS to construct such a ship, to be named after KaiserWilhelm II's daughter. The ship was launched on 29 June 1900 and christened Prinzessin Victoria Luise.
With cruises targeted toward wealthy travelers, PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE was designed to look more like a private yacht than any of her commercial counterparts. She had a trim hull 15.9 m (52.2 feet) wide by 124.2 m (407.5 feet) long. She was painted all white with two masts, one fore and aft, and two tall, slim funnels amidships. She had a rounded stern and a richly decorated clipper bow, with bowsprit, ending in a figurehead of the German princess.
On board, she also did not look like other commercial vessels of the time. She contained 120 cabins for 192 passengers, all first class. 161 crew served on the vessel. All staterooms were luxuriously appointed. Reportedly, Albert Ballin instituted some interior modifications recommended by the Emperor. There was also a library, a gymnasium, and a darkroom for the development of film by amateur photographers. Pushing all this at a steady 15 kts (28 km/h) were quadruple expansion steam engines of 3,600hp. After fitting out, the Kaiser formally inspected the vessel and was a bit unhappy that it was slightly longer than the imperial yacht HOHENZOLLERN. Which souvereign would not?
smy Hohenzollern
smy HOHENZOLELRN - Source: Wikipedia
To the uninformed, anyone seeing the PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE for the first time could be forgiven for believing she was a Royal Yacht. Indeed, she bore great similarity to many Royal Yachts of the late 19th century and early 20th century, not least the Egyptian Royal Yacht EL MAHROUSA, originally El HORRIYA. Last to be seen in public view, when she was traversing the enlarged SUEZ CANAL Aug 07th 2015, as she did when the imperial yacht of France L´AIGLE and the yacht of the Egyptian Khedive Ismail Pasha, the EL MAHROUSA, sailed the Canal in 1869.  
Suez Canal Opening
Parade of state yachts in 1869 for the first opening of the Suez Canal - copy from The London Illustrated, own collection
El Mahrousa ex El Horriya
EL MAHROUSA ex EL HORRIYA 1862 - Source: CHARTERWORLD
French Imperial Yacht L´Aigle
The French imperial yacht L´AIGLE - own collection, copy
PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE left on her maiden voyage on  January 5th 1901 from Hamburg, stopping at Boulogne, Plymouth, and finally reaching New York on  January 17th. She would depart New York on January 26th to the West Indies for her first cruise. Her second cruise, to the Mediterranean and the BlackSea, commenced from New York on 9 March. Other cruises would take the ship to the Baltic. She would be used almost exclusively for cruising as she had limited cargo or mail capacity. Yet, she would be diverted from cruising on six occasions to make complete transatlantic crossings.
Almost five years after her debut, her career came to an end while on a West Indian cruise. On the night of  December 16th the ship had tried to enter the harbor of Kingston but later her commander Captain Brunswig decided to anchor at Port Royal when he mistook the lighthouse at Plumb Point for that at the westernmost point of Port Royal. Heading north at 14 kts (26 km/h; 16 mph), the ship hit and climbed onto the rocks bow first at about 09:30 pm. In an attempt to dislodge the ship, the engines were put full astern to no avail.
The captain retreated to his cabin and shot himself. The passengers were rescued the following morning. A German Admiralty court found the captain negligent in May of the following year.
Salvage operations commenced immediately after the grounding. The German cruiser Bremen and the French training ship Duguay-Trouin came to the aid of the stranded ship with Bremen attempting to tow the steamer off the rocks. Within days, continued buffeting by waves and a storm pushed the ship broadside of the shore with a sharp list to port. Inspection revealed major structural damage to her frame and keel plates. Her engines had been displaced during impact and her port side was filled with 16 feet (4.9 m) of water. She was declared a total loss on December 19th.
The success of PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE and cruise offers with other vessels showed HAPAG that there is a demand for cruises even in those classes of society that don´t have the money to spend which is compared to a two years salary of a common worker - e.g. RM 895,00 per person.
After in deep research, ordered by Albert Ballin, HAPAG signed with BLOHM&VOSS the contract for building the METEOR meeting the demands of the not too wealthy cruise interested public, but rich enough to spend a first class ticket for pleasure - the upper middle class.
And 1904 saw the new and second purpose built cruise vessel in the world the METEOR. The vessels dimension had been 91,20 x 13,40 m, had 3,613 GT and could accomodate 283 passengers in I. Class. Her double screws propelled her to 12kts. The difference between nowadays boutique cruise ships and theses two first ever purpose built cruise vessels is the missing of a pool.
ss Meteor Hapag
Period postcard of ss METEOR, 1904, HAPAG - own collection
She had a clipper bow and a bowsprit and looked as the PRINZESSIN like a millionaires or royal yacht. Her inaugural cruise started on March 15th 1904 to Norway - a very popular destination in Germany in those days, still nowadays, as the Kaiser himself cruised often to Norway. 
In 1914 she was comissioned as Barrack vessel by the REICHSMARINE for the U-Boat flotilla and was handed to the Shipping Controller in 1919. She given to the ROYAL MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPAY who transfered her to H.J.JEWELL. In 1922 she was sold to DET BERGENSKE DAMPSKIPSSELSKAB For DET BERGENSKE she sailed as a cruise ship within the Norwegian Fjiords as well other destinations.
When the REICHSWEHR occupied Norway in 1940, avoiding the British occupation, the METEOR was seized by the German forces and was transformed into a hospital vessel.
On March 9th she was offshore Pillau, used as a refugee vessel for the evacuation of Prussia, when she was hit and sank during an airraid.
This METEOR became the blueprint for a verry succesful successor - the STELLA POLARIS.
ss Oceana HAPAG, ex Scot Union Line
ss OCEANA 1905, ex SCOT 1891, a former liner converted to cruise only - own collection
1905 saw a new vessel, an aquisition, and converted to become a cruise vessel, the OCEANA. She began her life 1891 as SCOT for UNION LINE and their UK Capetown route. HAPAG´s cruise offers had been that successfull, that a further vessel was needed to cover the market needs. So SCOT went to BLOHM&VOSS after purchasing and was rebuild as one class luxury cruise vessel to cater the market niche that Albert Ballin discovered, opend and as the market leader and only provider served. HAPAG had the monopol for cruises and served the market with purpose newbuilds and a purpose rebuild - the OCEANA.
ss Oceana 1905 Hapag Cruise vessel
ss OCEANA, 1905, HAPAG, rebuilt for cruising with First Class passengers - own collection
SCOT was built with clipper bow and bowsprit, so the vessel was looking corporate for the HAPAG cruise vessel fleet. In those days the only other big vessels built in that classical style have been the EMPRESS vessels of CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS. 
Empress of India Canadian Pacific Steamships
EMPRESS OF INDIA passing through First Narrows Vancouver 1891 - Source: Wikipedia (original seize)
The cruise vessels of HAPAG became from their look the synonym for cruise vessels of their days and dictated the look for cruise vessels. As it was with their white hulls. Both synonyms for leisure cruises.
But there was something else. It was not only the look or the luxurious outfitting onboard. It was too the spotless and caring service of the crew which made the vessels famous and synonyms for luxury. As well the marvelous food onboard which was top and as some guests, sophisticated travellers and even French guests recomended, the best they ever have eaten, weather in a famous French restaurant ahore or on board the well renowned for French vessels and their cusine.
HAPAG was pre WWI the benchmark in luxury, Food & Beverage and service on the seas. HAPAG was the market leader. With its three high end luxury cruise vessels HAPAG catered the international cruise market it had invented.
ss PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE grounding and loss in Jamaica 1906 - Source: New York Times copy
When disaster struck the PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE in Jamaika, and the vessel became a total loss, HAPAG was in need of a new special cruise vessel and had a single in its fleet, a vessel not fitting in the North Atlantic fleet, the DEUTSCHLAND, nicknamed the Cocktailshaker, the only Blue Riband winner of HAPAG. The stranding of PRINZESSIN VICTORIA LUISE was by the way the first loss of a cruise vessel in history, but without the loss of life, except the captain who shot himself in his cabin after grounding.
Hapag Victoria Luise ex Deutschland
ss VICTORIA LUISE, 1911, ex DEUTSCHLAND, 1900, HAPAG, rebuilt from Liner to top Luxury cruise vessel - own collection
The STELLA POLARIS was the last of these yacht styled cruise vessels, introduced by HAPAG´s genius ALBERT BALLIN.
Privat yachts still were built in the royal yacht style, as the actual NAHLIN, TALITHA G, SAVARONA the perhaps known ROSENKAVALIER - staged in the musical film Mamma Mia, etc. and the newbuild NERO. The owners did want to get the recognition of the society in general and special from the aristocracy, royalty and old rich. Especially if they had "only" new money.
by Alan Dumelow
The peak of luxury cruising in the 50s and 60s STELLA POLARIS of CLIPPER LINE
The peak of luxury cruising in the 50s and 60s STELLA POLARIS of CLIPPER LINE
As a teenager, I often amused myself spending the day walking around the Old Docks in Southampton. On one such an occasion, I was surprised to find the STELLA POLARIS berthed just inside what was then called the Outer Dock, a most unusual berth for a cruise ship.
Caribbean Cruise of Stella Polaris painting
ss STELLA POLARIS painting - copy own collection
STELLA POLARIS Built for DET BERGENSKE DAMPSKIPSSELSKAB by the GOTAVERKEN shipyard, the STELLA POLARIS was inspired by Bergen Line ’s success with the slightly smaller steamship METEOR, which had been built by BLOHM&VOSS for HAMBURG-AMERIKANISCHE PACKETFAHRT-ACTIENGESELLSCHAFT/HAMBURG-AMERICA LINE in 1904 but acquired by DET BERGENSKE DAMPSKIPSSELSKAB /BERGEN LINE in 1922. In fact, even after a time lapse of twenty-three years, the newbuilding quite closely resembled METEOR externally, being given an exquisite clipper bow and bowsprit, and a handsome counter stern.
Stella Polaris in SPitzbergen
STELLA POLARIS in Spitzbergen - period postcard own collection
The contract to build the STELLA POLARIS was signed on 4 August 1925. Whilst the Gotaverken shipyard were renowned builders, they had no previous experience of building passenger liners or cruise ships, so a large percentage of the internal fitting out was sub-contracted. In this area, Selander & Sons played a major part in the internal design and fitting of woodwork throughout the public rooms and cabins plus alleyways and external teak decks. The STELLA POLARIS had a build price of SKR 4,692,511 and was to be fitted out to the highest standards of the time, as the ship would be aimed at the millionaire market. She was launched on 11 September 1926 and, after sea trials, was delivered to Bergen Line 20 February 1927, some three months early. Measuring 5,209 GRT, with an overall length of 127.1 meters, she was nearly 22 meters longer than the METEOR. But unlike the METEOR , she was given two Burmeister & Wain diesel engines, providing 5,250 HP, driving twin screws and giving a maximum speed of 17.5 knots. Cabin accommodation was provided for 200 passengers in one class although, for her world cruises, capacity would be limited to 100 by using only the outboard cabins. But all the cabins were to be spacious and sumptuously fitted out, whether inboard or outboard, and virtually all the rooms would have en suite facilities. In particular, there were four special deluxe cabins respectively fitted out with mahogany, maple, pear wood and birch; one style to each cabin.
North Cape Cruise with Stella Polaris
STELLA POLARIS passengers during a North Cape Cruise
Stella Polaris and prdessesor Meteor
STELLA POLARIS and METEOR in Balholm - period postcard own collection
On Saturday 26 February 1927, the STELLA POLARIS sailed on her maiden cruise from Gothenburg via London to Lisbon and the Mediterranean, and quickly established a loyal following. During spring and autumn, she cruised the Mediterranean and Canary Islands. In summer months, she cruised around the Norwegian coast to the North Cape and Spitzbergen and into the Baltic. And in the winter she would undertake her annual round-the-world cruise, usually starting at New York. The first of these took her to Cuba, through the Panama Canal, to New Guinea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Ceylon, India, Cape Town, Freetown, Las Palmas, Casablanca, Tangiers and Gibraltar, ending in Harwich. This most successful formula continued for the next twelve years.
Stella Polaris in Madeira
STELLA POLARIS in Madeira - own collection
For her 1936/1937 cruise season, she included a West Indies Christmas & New Year cruise followed, on 3 January 1937, by a second fully booked West Indies cruise, prior to commencing her world voyage.
On  June 11th 1937, the STELLA POLARIS collided with the Norwegian steamer NOBLE near Aramssundet.
Fortunately, the STELLA POLARIS only suffered bow damage and a broken bowsprit, whereas the NOBLE sank. However, the most fortuitous outcome was the lucky (to say the least) avoidance of what could have been a truly terrible disaster and loss of life, because the “Noble” was carrying dynamite and live munitions, and this cargo did not explode.
Her last world cruise before the outbreak of war saw STELLA POLARIS depart New York on 21 January 1939, again taking in Havana and the Panama Canal, but then proceeding to the Galapagos Islands, the Pacific islands, Australia, Bali, Colombo, the Seychelles, South Africa, St.Helena, Dakar, Tenerife, then Casablanca and Gibraltar, ending at Southampton on  May 12th 1939.
WWII Stella Polaris as barracks for U Boat crews
STELLA POLARIS in Wartime, use as barracks for the U-Boat fleet in Norway - own collection, photo taken by my uncle, then officer in Norway
Upon the outbreak of World War Two, the STELLA POLARIS had just arrived at Oslo where, initially, she stayed in lay-up. However, with the invasion of Norway, Bergen Line moved their ships to remote fjords and STELLA POLARIS, in company with VEGA and VENUS, were relocated to Osterfjord, but really only delayed the inevitable. On 30 October 1940, she was seized by the Kriegsmarine and used as a support ship and accommodation barracks for U-boat crews, subsequently stationed at Narvik for a long time from March 5th 1942. On  September 1st 1944, she was put under the German flag with a German crew and used for transporting troops in the Baltic. In fact, when the war ended, she was sailing from Skjomen to Trondheim.
On 21 June 1945, the STELLA POLARIS was requisitioned by the Ministry of War Transport and used for transporting former Russian POW’s from Mo i Rana back to Murmansk and, for a short while later, for trooping duties between Norway and Leith. On 18 August 1945, she arrived at Oslo and was docked at Akers Verksted for overhaul before being handed back to BERGEN LINE on 7 November 1945. However, on 14 November, she was sent to the Gotaverken yard for a full and extensive refurbishment that saw her cabin capacity reduced to 189 passengers. Redelivered to BERGEN LINE , she sailed from Bergen on 10 August 1946 on a repositioning cruise to New York, from where she re-commenced her Caribbean cruising via Nassau to San Juan, St.Thomas, Fort de France, Caracas, Kingston, calling at Cuba en route back to New York before commencing four long luxury cruises via the Bahamas and Bermuda to Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Martinique, Venezuela, Curacao and Jamaica, again calling at Havana en route back to New York.
Stella Polaris 1946 Rio cruise
STELLA POLARIS cruise to Rio de Janeiro 1946 - youtube video
Strangely, during summer 1947, the STELLA POLARIS (by then recognized as the world’s best cruise ship) stood in on the Bergen to Newcastle ferry service while VENUS went for a major overhaul. On release in November 1947 she crossed to New Orleans for a series of Caribbean and South America cruises as a prelude to her annual world cruise. Back in European waters in 1948, summer saw her run a series of voyages from Bergen to London in connection with the 1948 Olympics.
In October 1951, after a long and successful history of cruising for BERGEN LINE , the STELLA POLARIS was sold to Swedish entrepreneur Einar Hansen’s Clipper Line (was existing till 1991 -  Rederi AB Clipper), who promptly dispatched her to Gotaverken’s shipyard for an extensive refit and modernization which, over the next two months, saw air conditioning fitted throughout, her public rooms rebuilt, and new carpets and fabrics fitted everywhere.
STELLA POLARIS CLIPPER LINE luggage tag - copy/own collection
Stella Polaris advertsings of Clipper Line
CLIPPER LINE advertisings for STELLA POLARIS cruises, top and below broshure cover
Stella Polaris Clipper Line
advertising Stella Polaris
Typical 60s style advertising for STELLA POLARIS in France - copy own colletion
On Sunday 1 December 1951 she hoisted the Swedish flag and sailed on her first (of many) Clipper Line cruises from Gothenburg to the Caribbean and New Orleans. Her seasonal cruise pattern more-or-less echoed her previous owner’s pattern. In July 1952, however, she moored alongside in Helsinki for the 1952 Olympic Games before, in August 1952, commencing her first voyage from her home port of Malmo to the Mediterranean. The STELLA POLARIS continued her successful cruising with many of her previous rich American and European clients staying loyal to the little yacht despite a change of owner and flag. Realising this, on 8 October 1954, Clipper Line sent the 28 year old cruiser to AG Weser in Bremen for another major refit that saw her passenger areas heavily rebuilt with even larger cabins and better en suite facilities throughout, but with a reduced capacity for a maximum of just 155 passengers.
Stella Polaris letter
STELLA POLARIS letter stamped in Israel - own collection
For the next fourteen years the STELLA POLARIS cruised the Caribbean and Mediterranean with brilliant continued success. On  April 23rd 1968 she undertook a unique 49 day cruise, becoming the first cruise ship to navigate five major European rivers. Sailing from New Orleans, she crossed the Atlantic and cruised the Gironde, Loire, Seine, Schelde and Thames, also including calls at Madeira, Monte Carlo, Majorca, Sicily, the French Riviera and Guernsey before docking at London on 10 June 1968.
Stella Poilaris anchoring
STELLA POLARIS anchoring offshore a pristine coast during a cruise
In October 1968, she was dispatched to Kockums shipyard in Malmo for a further refit that resulted in her capacity being again reduced to 140 in 70 deluxe cabins. But after a further year cruising, Clipper Line considered the, by then, 42 year old ship no-longer financially viable due to her very high operating costs and overheads and, on 23 October 1969, sold her for US$ 850,000 to International Houdse Co. Ltd. of Tokyo, for use as a floating hotel in Japan in the small village of Kisho Nishiura. Accordingly, on  October 28th 1969, the STELLA POLARIS sailed from Lisbon under the Japanese flag, transiting the Panama Canal for the last time, and arriving at Yokosuki on 13 December 1969. After a brief refit for her new role which, for tax reasons, involved the removal of her two propellers, she was moored alongside the pier at Kisho Nishiura on the Japanese Izu peninsular and marketed as Floating Hotel SCANDINAVIA. Although she still had the name STELLA POLARIS on her bows. In her new capacity, she enjoyed a brief success but, eventually, room bookings dwindled and she resorted to becoming a restaurant popular for serving Scandinavian-style smorgasbords and pickled fish cuisine.
STELLA POLARIS as the Hotel SCANDINAVIA in Kisho Nishiura, Japan
In August 2005, rumours that the SCANDINAVIA was about to be sold were confirmed when the Swedish company Petro Fast AB confirmed it had acquired the ship for return to Sweden for use as a floatel. But the ship had not moved from her pier for 32 years so, a year after purchase, end-August 2006, the SCANDINAVIA was towed away from her pier to go to a nearby shipyard to be repaired and made safe for her journey home to Europe. Unfortunately, two days out from Kisho Nishiura, she began to take on water through her strained hull plates and, on September 2nd 2006, the beautiful yacht sank 280 miles southwest of Tokyo in a busy, dangerous, deepwater channel in southeastern Japanese waters in 70 meters deep water.
STELLA POLARIS under tow - own collection
Postscript:
Some years after, an Australian website advertised STELLA POLARIS for sale (obviously as a scam), but omitted to mention she was sitting at the bottom of the ocean.
Reviews:
 “The ship was considered one of the most elegant and exclusive devoted to cruising.”
 “She had no rivals.”
 “On the World Cruise there was more than one crew member for every passenger.”


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© coloured by Daryl LeBlanc by Earl of Cruise NORMANDIE verlässt den Hafen von Le Havre am 29. Mai 1935 Jungfernfahrt   Luggage Tags - Kofferaufkleber für das Gepäck der Reisenden mit der NORMANDIE. - NORMANDIEs Maiden Voyage (1935) British PATHÉ Um 18:26 zogen drei Schlepper die NORMANDIE von der Pier. Wenige Minuten später war das Fahrwasser erreicht und die Maschinen der NORMANDIE übernahmen ihre Aufgabe. Mit einem langen Typhon Signal verabschiedete sich die NORMANDIE von Frankreich und den zu abertausenden anwesenden Schaulustigen. Dann wendete man das Schiff zu seinem ersten Stopp in Großbritannien - Southampton. Kapitän René Pugnet wusste, dass die eigentliche Aufgabe für die Besatzung (1.345 Mann), darunter 120 Offiziere und Mannschaften und 184 Techniker, und die Technik des Schiffes noch vor bestand. 972 weitere Servicekräfte, darunter die Küchencrew, drei Ärzte und zwei Krankenschwestern, waren an Bord für das Wohl der illusteren 1.261 G

HISTORY - ts / ss BREMEN and ts / ss EUROPA

Germany’s two luxury liners, BREMEN and EUROPA , have not only played an important part in their country’s mercantile revival, but have added also an immortal chapter to the history of transatlantic travel. Copy from Shipping Wonders of the World   From part 6 , published 17 March 1936 editing by Earl of Cruise ss / ts BREMEN in her early years - Source: Shipping Wonders of the World/Bundespresse Archiv The PRIDE OF A NATION - the NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD quadruple-screw turbine express liner BREMEN . The keel of this ship was laid in June 1927. Her launch took place in August, 1928. In less than a year later, the Bremen made her first voyage to America, when she crossed the Atlantic from Cherbourg to New York in four days seventeen hours forty-two minutes, thus setting up a new record and gaining the coveted “Blue Riband”. During the passage the Bremen attained an average speed of 27.83 knots. ss / ts BREMEN in her early years - Source: W ikipedia For the populac

HISTORY - FRENCH LINE - COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE, a review - Part II Belle Epoque

The COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE, known since the Belle Epoque as FRENCH LINE in the English speaking world (or TRANSAT or CGT), had its origins in 1861.  by Earl of Cruise E mperor Napoléon III. wanted strengthening the French primacy on the oceans and an adequate mail line for the French mail. The 1855 established COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE MARITIME of the Péreire brothers was the core for the new company. This company´s headquarter was, as any major business in France, situated in Paris, while the homeport of the vessels had been Le Havre for the North Atlantic and Marseille for the route to the Orient and Africa. Houseflag of COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE S.A. - soure: ebay "On   limited space, we put our country on display", a crewmember declared once. And no other line put in more of its national personality into its product than COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE . After the French - Prussian/German war of 1870/71 France had to sig

HMV HAMBURGER MODELBAUBOGEN VERLAG

The label HMV HAMBURGERMODELBAUBOGEN VERLAG was founded in 1995 as a subsidiary of SCHEUER & STRÜVER ( sorry only in German ) of Hamburg and is producing since then high quality cardbord models, most ships. The implementation of HMV was back then born out of a missing of high quality cardbord models. by Earl of Cruise HMV models of HAMBURG, 1969 and HANSEATIC 1, ex EMPRESS OF SCOTLAND, ex EMPRESS OF JAPAN displayed at the both during the INTERMODELBAU - own photo © Earl of Cruise Benjamin Fentens with Carsten Horn, model constructor of WAPPEN VON HAMBURG 3 und HAMBURG, 1969 - courtsey HMV   The publishers of HMV wanted to create from their very heat, and from the first beginning constructive qualified and high grad printed cardbord models. Their concept created a story of success. The model builders / customers are of all age groups, from the young to the old. HMV model of WAPPEN VON HAMBURG 3 - own photo © Earl of Cruise Till 2009 HMV was part of SCHEUE