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HISTORY - EUGENIO C. a masterpiece of Italian design and engineering

EUGENIO C., later EUGENIO COSTA, was a masterpiece of Italian design and is an example of beautifully integrated ship design. Her naval architect, Nicolò Costanzi, and her interior designer, Nino Zoncada, worked side by side, or hand in hand, to create a perfect balance and continuity between the vessel's interiors and the exterior profile. EUGENIO C. became a masterpiece of the 60s design and elegance.
by Earl of Cruise
Some readers had been asking for interior photographies ... here they are.
 Eugenio C. Tourist Class A pool, looking aft into the wake line
Eugenio C. Tourist Class A pool, looking aft into the wake line - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. entered service a little more than 50 years ago in 1966. EUGENIO C. was a child of the swinging 60s, when we had the first jet setters, and still style and elegance. And travelling by jet in those days was still an expensive way to travel for few.
I am not the only one wishing the same intent and sensibility would be a guide line for present shipowners and naval architects. Mr Costanzi was used to say: "Functionality is never an excuse for bad design". But the desingners of today use this "Design follows function" credo for their sometimes awfull designs. 
Eugenio C., Ponto Soggiorno, enclosed promenade - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Do looks matter?
Definitely yes!
And when looking on the resonance on my my article about the SAGA newbuild I dare say, it is relevant for the cruise customers too, despite the success of the floating mega event locations spit out on the seas by the megalodons of the cruise industry.
The design of ship, a building or a car is definitely like a business card to the audience. And a well designed ship is enlarging the reputation of a shipping line or a cruise company. Back in the old days and still today ... but it is forgotten by the most, the cruise lines and theitr mass market customers.
Eugenio C. at full speed mid ocean
Eugenio C. at full speed mid ocean, the wake line really staring a bit aft of the vessel - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Nicolò Costanzi patented the "duck tail" for his two master pieces, EUGENIO C. and OCEANIC. This stern design, now adopted by virtually all modern cruise ships, proved to be very effective for the perfect streamlined hulls of both vessels, resulting in lower fuel consumption or higher speed compared to the power used. Further this form of stem was avoiding the ship's nose to submerge in heavy heading seas. The most evident feature of this new design is the distinctive "swan-neck" shaped cutwater, which make immediately recognisible his vessels. This "duck tail" is pushing the connection of water flodding along both sides of the hull far behind the vessel, which in the "old" way would act like a break to the forward move.
EUGENIO C. full speed ahead on the South Atlantic
EUGENIO C. full speed ahead on the South Atlantic - courtesy: crewsnewsdaily
Later this design was copied, somehow, in the design of QUEEN MARY 2´s stern, but deffinitely missing the elegance of the original design. On QUEEN MERY 2 it is looking more like, oh I have forgotten to get a rounded stern, so I did add something for the look.
OCEANIC and EUGENIO C. had similar lines, as they had been designed by one genius naval engineer. But EUGENIO C. had the sheer which OCEANIC did not have. This makes them two different constructions and slightly "near sisters", but not truely. 
OCEANIC, in the foreground, and EUGENIO C., on the slip, under construction
OCEANIC, in the foreground, and EUGENIO C., on the slip, under construction - own collection
EUGENIO C. had a forward looking concept in interior design, which was a guide line for future ship designs. The rooms did flow from into the next, even with the central casing, EUGENIO C. did not have parted uptakes for an undisturbed view from the front of the superstructure to the aft. But she located the main salons for each class on the promenade deck. As the dining rooms for the diferent classes could be easily opend for one sitting when on cruises.
Despite all of her 60s contemporary elegance and refinery, EUGENIO C. lacked to my liking the crew passenger ratio for a real luxurious liner - 1 crew member per 4 passengers.
Eugenio C. Tourist Class A pool, looking aft into the wake line - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., Ponto Soggiorno, Tourist Class B pool, looking aft into the wake line
Eugenio C., Ponto Soggiorno, Tourist Class B pool, looking aft into the wake line - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
But when EUGENIO C. inaugurated on the South Atlantic, she was THE liner, as there was any other liner any more that could compete with the beautiful Italian design. The other liners where outdated imideately with the advent of EUGENIO C. the Swans of the South Atlantic of HAMBURG SÜD, had been elegent and First Class only ships, but they have been combi freighters and no passenger liners. Further she was the fastest, and despite her crew passenger ratio the most luxurious on the route to the La Plata ports.
Eugenio C a classic from broshures
Eugenio C., a classic from broshures - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure

Nino Zoncada
Giovanni “Nino” Zoncada (Venice, 1898 – 1988) studied at the Academy of Fine Arts  in Venice. His career began in 1923, when he started working at the Cantieri Navale Triestino of Monfalcone (the interior and furnishing department), and became one of its directors by the end of the following decade. In the late 1940s he started collaboration with Gio Ponti who always spoke highly of Zoncada – refurbishing of the CONTE BIANCAMANO, followed by the CONTE GRANDE.
In addition to designing almost the entire Costa fleet from the ANNA C. refit (1948, including EUGENIO C. of 1966) to the CARLA C (ex FLANDRE) in 1968. He either designed or contributed to almost every major transatlantic Italian liner between 1950s and 1960s; GIULIO CESARE, AUGUSTUS, ANDREA DORIA, CRISTOFORO COLOMBO, LEONARDO DA VINCI, MICHELANGELO, and RAFFAELLO.  STELLA SOLARIS was his last project. And till her dismiss and end at the scrapers, STELLA SOLARIS was still sailing with his special handwriting ...
Following photos are depicting the creations of Nino Zoncada for EUGENIO C.
Eugenio C., Salla Festa Ambra, Prima Classe
Eugenio C., Salla Festa Ambra, Prima Classe - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C. Salla Feste Opale
Eugenio C., Salla Feste Opale - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C. Salla Feste Turchese
Eugenio C., Salla Feste Turchese - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C. Bar Salla Feste Turchese
Eugenio C., Bar Salla Feste Turchese - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., Bar Discoteca
Eugenio C., Bar Discoteca - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., Soggiorno Rubino, Prima Classe
Eugenio C., Soggiorno Rubino, Prima Classe - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., the two deck high Cinema/Theatre
Eugenio C., the two deck high Cinema/Theatre - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., the Teen Ager´s - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., the Kindergarden - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., the chapell - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., cutaway - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure

EUGENIO C. Tourist Class B cabin, outside
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class B cabin, outside - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class A cabin, outside
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class A cabin, outside - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class B, 22 m² inside cabin
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class B, 22 m² inside cabin - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. First Class suite
EUGENIO C. First Class suite - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C., Ponte Lance
EUGENIO C., Ponte Lance, why the cabins on this deck were never squatted in balcony cabins/suites, escapes my understanding - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C., Ponte Lido, with the First Class Pool, and Ponte Sole, with the Tourist Class A Pool
EUGENIO C., Ponte Lido, with the First Class Pool, and Ponte Sole, with the Tourist Class A Pool - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Nowadays it would cost a mere fortune to build a 30,000 tonner in the style of EUGENIO C. Just have to look at her hand-made plates for many rounded parts of hull and superstructure, funnels, mast, upperworks forward end ... Getting curves in the steel or the aluminium today cost a fortune, but makes modern ships an edgy mess.
It really would be nice to see just a little more effort in today's owners and designers to make their vessels look more decent, or lets be frank ship like looking.
Todays resort vessel designs count only on the short living wow-effect, attracting the masses, and no longer an eye pleasing look and lines in harmony.
The 1984 added new salon on the aft of EUGENIO C.´s superstructure disturbed the harmony of lines massively.
At one point in the mid-1960s, the Monfalcone yard of Cantieri Riuniti Dell'Adriatico (CRDA) was filled with a stable of brilliant newbuildings. The diminutive but handsome little Greek reparation trio of originally ferries, later transformed into cruise vessels - ADONIS, EROS, later EPIROTIKI/ROYAL OLYMPIC's JASON, and APHRODITE, later Sun Line's lovely little STELLA OCEANIS; Home Lines' practically perfect OCEANIC; and, our subject, Costa Line's last true purpose-built ocean liner, EUGENIO C.
To me and I am again blunt the quartet of EUGENIO C., OCEANIC, MICHELANGELO and RAFFAELLO are the last real ships built in Italy, and reflect what Italy is commonly known for: Perfect Design. It is said north of the Alps, give an Italian a piece of steel and he is forming the most beautiful design object of as you ever can imagine.
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class B Dining Room
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class B Dining Room - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class A Dining Room
EUGENIO C. Tourist Class A Dining Room - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. First Class dining room
EUGENIO C. First Class Dining Room, for the broshure the ladies had been dressed in Italian Designer Fashion - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
Eugenio C., the location of the different Dining Rooms
Eugenio C., the location of the different Dining Rooms, these had been ideal for one class cruises - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
The 30,567 gt EUGENIO C. was originally built to carry 214 First class and 1,445 Tourist class, divided into Tourist A and Tourist B, passengers. She was 217 m (712 ft) by 29 m (90 ft) and had a rather deep draft of 8,5 m (27,89 ft), which in her final days at Alang would prove most frustrating for her ill-reputed breaker, but most ideal for sailing to the de la Plata ports. EUGENIO C. was powered by two CRDA De Laval turbines that produced 60,000 shp to drive the twin screws at a service speed of 28.43 knots.
An early shipyard fire caused some minor damage to the newbuilding, but it was extinguished and EUGENIO C. was launched on 21 November 1964 by the wife of Costa Lines' president, Angelo Costa.
Eugenio C., launching, clear visable the swan neck stem and the bulbous - own collection, courtesy CRDA
In terms of size and speed, EUGENIO C. was rather impressive. But her aesthetics were even more magnificent. Her bow was the trademark CRDA "swans' neck" with its distinctive upeatd curvature, ending with a slight forward bulbus at its base. EUGENIO C.´s elegant stern was like that of OCEANIC, a lovely cruiser spoon set atop a transom for better sea-keeping, an early form of nowadays common "duck tails", which are more like a sponson, or giving on some vessels the image of an extra marina/high seas beach (e.g. CELEBRITY´s SOLSTICE Class). 
Eugenio C., the following three photographs are despicting the transom at the stern - own collection, courtesy CRDA
Eugenio C. the transom at the stern
Eugenio C. the transom at the stern
 Eugenio C. the transom at the stern
Unlike OCEANIC, EUGENIO C. had a wondrous sheer and her semi-circular forward superstructure was crowned by bridge wings, not unlike to those of NORMANDIE´s original bridge wings. 
Eugenio C., as the EUGENIO COASTA after conversion in the 1980s, clearly visiable the semicircular front of the Superstructure and the bridge wings
Eugenio C., as the EUGENIO COASTA after conversion in the 1980s, clearly visiable the semicircular front of the Superstructure and the bridge wings - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure
EUGENIO C. funnels were often compared by British shiplovers to those of CANBERRA, but have been a design of their own. It was the design trend of the 60s to have twin funneld liners. So f.e. HANSEATIC, ex SHALOM, KLOSTER´s SUNWARD, STARWARD, SOUTHWARD, PAQUET´s RENAISSANCE and ANCERVILLE, later MINGHUA, and some more. This design had its origin in the ferry design and the parted uptakes like those of VATERLAND/BISMARCK, BREMEN/EUROPA and NORMANDIE. The interior effect was an uninterupted space in the middle on the decks. The funnels were topped by winged lattice works that could be seen as a recalling of MICHELANGELO and RAFFAELLO´s lattice funnels. For a good reason since they were designed by the same people at Turin Polytechnic. 
The outward angled twin funnels of EUGENIO C., these funnels can by far not compared with other twin funnels
The outward angled twin funnels of EUGENIO C., these funnels can by far not compared with other twin funnels - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure, after 1980s conversion - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure, after 1980s conversion
EUGENIO C. under construction
EUGENIO C. under construction, putting the funnels in position - own collection, courtesy CRDA
EUGENIO C.'s sculpted radio mast was, itself, a work of art, as were her wonderfully terraced afterdecks. She sported three swimming pools as built but one would succumb after her conversion to a one-class cruise vessel and rebuilding in the mid 80s.
The prolific but underrated Nino Zoncada designed EUGENIO C.´s interiors and even worked with Nicoló Costanzi on the exterior appearance. Masterful artworks by Emanuele Luzzati, Enrico Paulucci, Massimo Campigli, and Marcello Mascherini graced the public rooms. Zoncada's modern, streamlined furniture and fixtures provided the finishing touches. One day it will be nice to not have to refer to his collaborations with Gio Ponti to get non-ship enthusiasts' attention.
EUGENIO C. served COSTA LINE's Genoa to Buenos Aires route from 1966 until 1977, when her main employment became pleasure cruising, although EUGENIO C. did continue to make line voyages from time to time. Her average speed record of 27.5 knots on the South Atlantic run remains the fastest to this date. In 1987, following a major refit, she became EUGENIO COSTA. At that time, her interiors were significantly modernized and a prefabricated structure was added to her stern housing a new show lounge. Resulting loosing one outdoor pool and the harmony of the graceful lines.
In 1993, EUGENIO C. almost became the AMERICAN PIONEER for COSTA LINE's very shortlived subsidiary AMERICAN FAMILY CRUISES, but the company was shut down before EUGENIO C. was to be delivered. In 1994. Instead EUGENIO C. was sold to the BREMER VULKAN shipyard and chartered back to COSTA LINE until November of 1996. It was a part payment for the newbuilding COSTA VICTORIA. EUGENIO C. was finally laid up at Genoa. 
EUGENIO C. as the AMERICAN ADVENTURE and GUGLIELMO MARCONI as the AMERICAN PIONEER
EUGENIO C. as the AMERICAN ADVENTURE and GUGLIELMO MARCONI as the AMERICAN PIONEER for COSTA´s AMERICAN FAMILY CRUISES ... both ships had never been renamed for this short lived venture - own collection, copy from my AMERICAN FAMILY CRUISES broshure
Within the bancrupcy of BREMER VULKAN EUGENIO C. was sold to CAMMELL LAIRD. And in 1997, EUGENIO C. was chartered to DIRECT CRUISES and was renamed EDINBURGH CASTLE for British based budget cruising. The venture failed, in large part due to the ship's poor mechanical performance, boiler and mechanical problems. During the last years with COSTA and then with BREMER VULKAN, EUGENIO C. got a poor maitenance and was more or less neglected. The CAMMELL LAIRD shipyard bought the tour operator, trying to turn the wheels, to get a revenue on their investment, purchasing the EUGENIO C. 
EUGENIO C. as EDINBURG CASTLE
EUGENIO C. as EDINBURG CASTLE - own collection, courtesy CAMMELL LAIRD
It followed a very brief charter for gambling cruises out of New York which also fizzled.
EUGENIO C. got a massive mechanical overhaul and was next chartered to Premier Cruises who refurbished the public areas and renamed EUGENIO C. - THE BIG RED BOAT II. Plagued further with mishaps and other operational problems, EUGENIO C. was laid up following the collapse of PREMIER CRUISE LINES after only four months of operation in September of 2000.
A short charter to the U.S. government followed, and then THE BIG RED BOAT II was laid up at Freeport with most of her fleetmates. 
EUGENIO C. as BIG RED BOAT II, still owned by CAMMELL LAIRD and officially not renamed, still the EDINGBURG CASTLE
EUGENIO C. as BIG RED BOAT II, still owned by CAMMELL LAIRD and officially not renamed, still the EDINGBURG CASTLE - own collection
Although EUGENIO C. was actively offered, and under price, for further cruise service, the reality of EUGENIO C.´s mechanical problems spelled her doom. At first, EUGENIO C. was fairly well maintained, but after being sold to ARGO SHIPMANAGEMENT in 2003, the condition quickly deteriorated. When further trading was no longer a viable option, EUGENIO C. sputtered across the Atlantic as the BIG RED BOAT II - the "THE" was dropped for her delivery, leaving a trail of black smoke in her wake. Finally EUGENIO C. did arrive at Alang in June of 2005. 
EUGENIO C.´s end at Alang - own collection
It was then that the draft of 8,5 m and nearly lost power out of the oilers, stranded EUGENIO C. far from the breaker's beach, making the dismantling process significantly more difficult, costly and time consuming. In late 2005, the breaker was being investigated by Indian courts for safety violations, further delaying the demolition of the once beautiful former EUGENIO C.

Throughout her Italian career, EUGENIO C. was filled with some of the nation's finest artwork. In 1987, she was given a USD $25 million upgrade at the T Mariotti shipyard in Genoa. At that time, she was fitted with a new showroom and certain modifications to her public areas and accommodation. In the dining room, Roman architect Giuseppe de Jorio oversaw the addition of new art, including panels by Francesco Colacino, a painter was born in Catanzaro, Italy in 1919. Self-taught, he started drawing in his childhood, and later learned to paint. The expression of life colors on the canvas are best reprensented in his landscapes, flowers and still life paintings.
After having been employed in a post office of Foppolo, Val Brenbana, he moved subsequently in to follow his artist ambitions in the late 1960s. In 1994, in conjunction with several other artists, he founded the CLUB ARTISTI RECOAERSI. Colacino received numerous accolades and awards, including:
Homo Helectus Ducati Extensis (Ferrara);
1° Premio Internazionale il Macchiavello, Nomina ad Accademico di Merito (Roma, 1981);
Premio Zeus;
Premio Coalunga San Bonifacio;
Gran Premio int. Città di Boretto;
appointed Knight of Malta in 1996.
Critics have always been favourable to him: "The artist always express the turmoil of a passioned soul for beauty with great sensibility, inspired above all by the world of nature, capturing moving images, full of harmony in great hues... Colacino is a painter who has art in his heart".
Francesco Colacino passed away in 2003. When the lovely former EUGENIO C. showed up on the beach of Alang, these panels were still extant. This panel was removed with some of its wooden backing still attached. In the process, the unbacked right portion was slightly creased along the edge, which has been taken into account in the pricing. Proper framing and mounting will conceal this. Also, there are some light diagonal scratches in the top of the steel surface. Again, the colors are vivid and uplifting. In this painting, a yellow flowered vine winds its way around a white trellis. The unpainted portions of the reflective surface bring the viewer and real life surroundings into the imagery.
EUGENIO C.´s stools by Nino Zoncada - own collection, copy from my LINEA  C‟ broshure (top), below (Peter Knego)
These sweet, comfortable chairs (almost ottomans due to their diminutive size) were made by the famous manufacturer Cassina for Nino Zoncada's brilliant Costa Line flagship EUGENIO C. They were originally in the ship's cabins although most of them disappeared over the years. A few of them survived and I was able to a very small quantity once the ship reached India..
The splayed legs are wooden. The fabric on some of these is fine as is, depending on your taste. I am not certain if it is the original Costa covering or something that was put on the chairs in more recent years. As always, I will sell those in the best condition first.
Giovanni (Nino) Zoncada was born in Venice in 1898 and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts (Venice). In 1923, he began working in the interior and furnishing department of the Cantieri Navale Triestino of Monfalcone, becoming one of its directors by the end of the following decade. He joined forces with the Milanese architect Gio Ponti in the late 1940s and they worked together on their first project, the refurbishing of the CONTE BIANCAMANO, followed shortly thereafter by the CONTE GRANDE. Gio Ponti, of course, is possibly the most celebrated Italian designer of the 20th Century, which speaks highly for Zoncada, who is not as well known outside of ship history, but whose work may be the most important of the era. Zoncada designed or contributed to almost every major transatlantic Italian liner of the 1950s and 1960s, including: GIULIO CESARE, AUGUSTUS, ANDREA DORIA, CRISTOFORO COLOMBO, LEONARDO DA VINCI, MICHELANGELO, and RAFFAELLO. In addition, he designed practically the entire Costa fleet from the ANNA C refit in 1948 (including the brilliant EUGENIO C of 1966) all the way through to the CARLA C (ex FLANDRE) in 1968. OCEANIC, AUSONIA, GRIPSHOLM, STELLA OCEANIS, and STELLA SOLARIS are but a few more outstanding ships to emerge from his studios. Zoncada died in 1988 and the STELLA SOLARIS was his final commission.
One cannot praise the efforts of Italian authors Maurizio Eliseo and Paolo Piccione enough for their brilliant book, TRANSATLANTICI, available on Tormena Press. In it, there is much information on the underrated Zoncada and the other great Italian designers of the mid-20th century. Also, Paolo Piccione and Matteo Fochessatis CROCIERE NELL ARTE and ARTE IN VIAGGIO are two invaluable references.


Architect and interior designer
Nino Zoncada.
Artists
Massimo Campigli, Emanuele Luzzati, Tranquillo Marangoni, Marcello Mascherini (dal 1985), Enrico Paulucci, Luigi Spacal.
Works by Mascherini:
1.      Pifferaio – Fauno disteso (1958, bronze, l. 220 x h. 120 cm., cat. 500); formerly located in the First-class Gala room of ship Federico C.; from 1985 transferred to the passenger turbine ship “Eugenio Costa” till 1997; nowadays in the art collection of Costa Crociere; exhibiting at Palazzo Costa in Genoa since 2010.
2.      Danzatrice con tre gabbiani (1959, bronze, l. 120 x h. 126, cat. 512); formerly located, with two sea-gulls, in the Lounge room of passenger ship Franca C.; from 1985 transferred to the passenger turbine ship “Eugenio Costa” till 1997; nowadays in the art collection of Costa Crociere.




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Comments

  1. Great article! as usual! My best congratulations Gerd!

    ReplyDelete
  2. Can you let me know the date Eugenio C called at Cape Town, I took a few pictures of her call, but do not have the date. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I worked many years on this ship starter 1974 to1983 . Was a beautyfull ship ,the last image to Halang Is very hard . Thanks to remember this Cruise boat!

    ReplyDelete

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For liners and the shipping companies movies and films had been a top marketing tool Movies or Films and liners at sea, had been intriguing me since I have read about in my youth in LUXUSLINER - BILDER EINER GROSSEN ZEIT by Lee Server ( THE GOLDEN AGE OF OCEAN LINERS ). But earlier, mot only since my first crossing, I was keen watching movies with liners in it, and disapointed, which was an understatement, when I realized the films have been made in a set ashore in some movie "factory". That was after my first crossing.   by Earl of Cruise an essay in progress `Sabrina´, Humphrey Bogart in the office, while LIBERTÉ is sailing out of New York harbor - screenshot Ocean liners, especially those of the luxury category, had been the location of dramas, love stories, thrillers, suspense and catastrophies sinde film was born, or nearly. In this list, the most descriptions are taken from Wikipedia, as I guess no one can expect having seen all these films ... otherwise I w

Liners - Can classic ocean liners make a comeback

Classic ocean liners, crossing the oceans, had been for long time the only way to cross the seas. A comeback of ocean liners for real? When in 2010 the Islandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull did errupt, and all flights that would come near his ash-clouds had to be cancelled, people had been trapped on each side of the pond ... And immidiately all available cabins on containerships had been booked, cruise vessels sailing either to the Americas or Europe had been flodded by desperate travellers to get to their destination ... Going by ship was in those days the only way to cross. It did show a certain, but temporary neccessity of liner traffic. But unfortunately we did not have any longer a frequent crossing possibility by ship - Transatlantic liners, liners per se had gone, gone with the wind of history and technical progress in air flight. Is an ocean liner comeback possible? by Earl of Cruise rms QUEEN ELIZABETH 2 © Beken - own collection, copy from a postcard CUNARD held the

HISTORY - ts / ss BREMEN and ts / ss EUROPA

Germany’s two luxury liners, BREMEN and EUROPA , have not only played an important part in their country’s mercantile revival, but have added also an immortal chapter to the history of transatlantic travel. Copy from Shipping Wonders of the World   From part 6 , published 17 March 1936 editing by Earl of Cruise ss / ts BREMEN in her early years - Source: Shipping Wonders of the World/Bundespresse Archiv The PRIDE OF A NATION - the NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD quadruple-screw turbine express liner BREMEN . The keel of this ship was laid in June 1927. Her launch took place in August, 1928. In less than a year later, the Bremen made her first voyage to America, when she crossed the Atlantic from Cherbourg to New York in four days seventeen hours forty-two minutes, thus setting up a new record and gaining the coveted “Blue Riband”. During the passage the Bremen attained an average speed of 27.83 knots. ss / ts BREMEN in her early years - Source: W ikipedia For the populac

HISTORY - SPIRIT OF PROGRESS the Australian luxury day express train

The Australian luxury day express train SPIRIT OF PROGRESS was the most important express train of VICTORIAN RAILWAYS , a state corporation of Victoria , and one of the most important trains in Down Under. The train is a masterpiece of ART DÉCO design from Down Under. The widely unknown train was in service from 1937 till 1986. First the SPIRIT OF PROGRESS did run from Melbourne to Albury , because of the broad gauge of VICTORIA RAILWAYS (1,600 mm). At the boarder between Victoria and New South Wales the passengers had to leave the SPIRIT OF PROGRESS and go on with their trip to Sidney on the standard gauged (1, 435 mm) train of the New South Wales Railway system. In 1962 the SPIRIT OF PROGRESS could run straight to Sydney. But was withdrawn in 1986, caused by the lack of paying passengers. by Earl of Cruise VICTORIAN RAILWAYS S Class steam locomotive 302 EDWARD HENTY trajecting the SPIRIT OF PROGRESS - courtesy © Weston Langford The late 1930's saw a new era in