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HISTORY - AUSTRO AMERICANA the Austro-Hungary shipping line into the new world

Not many know about the Austro-Hungary shipping line, AUSTRO AMERICANA, which sailed out of Trieste to the Americas.
Austro-Hungary and shipping? You may ask ... you may have heard about Vienna Walz, coffe house culture, Hotel Sacher and its famous chocolate cake, the Prater, chateau Schönbrunn, the Fiakers - the famous horse carriages and such things. But passenger shipping lines? There has been AUSTRO AMERICANA and ÖSTERREICHISCHER LLOYD, renamed in LLOYD TRIESTINO after 1918 and after purchased by EVERGREEN renamed in Italia Marittima. The actual company ÖSTERREICHISCHER LLOYD is a new formed management company situated in Austria. 
by Earl of Cruise
Austro Americana
KAISER FRANZ JOSEH I. the biggest liner of AUSTRO AMERICANA - own collextion
Parts of my family lived for a long time in the Austro-Hungary empire, which can be qualified as a "United Nations of the Balkan". Having traces into Austria-Hungay, the realm of Hungary in special, it is a pleasure for me making these companies a bit more known. At first AUSTRO AMERICANA. Austria-Hungary has a longer marine tradition than you may know. And a certain Josef Ludvík František Ressel invented the screw, but unfortunately could not gain the patent for, as a Brtish engineer was quicker with. Ressel and that particular engineer had been in mail corresponcence ... 
Austro Americana
First working shippropeller, model in the Technische Universität Wien - Source: Wikipefia (original size)
The Dalmatian coast, for a long period within the power of Venezia later became part of the realm of Hungary, is connected to the seas since neolitic ages and harbored shipbuilders and seamen. And these shipbuilders are still most capable, BRODOSPLIT is building Michael Krafft´s new sail cruise vessel, another yard is constructing the top luxurious SCENIC ECLIPSE for its Australian owners.
The Austro-Hungary empire´s connection to the seas traces back to 1382, when the free city of Trieste, fearful of its mighty rival and neighbor Venezia, placed itself under the protection of the then land power oriented duc of Habsburg. The Habsburg foothold on the Adriatic remained very small until 1797 when the demise of the Serenissima Republica di Venezia, in the wake of the French revolutionary wars, came. The house Habsburg then ruled nearly hole nothern Italy. Italy under Napoléon´s rule after 1806 took possession of Venezia and coastal parts of Austria-Hungary. But after the congress in Vienna 1815 Austria-Hungary reestablished its power in Italy and regained Venezia, Istra and Dalmatia, and incorporatd the large Venetian navy and merchant marine.
Austro Americana
The k.u.k. empire of Austria-Hungary in 1899 - own collection, copy from my history atlass

After years of neglect, as for being too complacency about the navy, the empire was still a land oriented power in Europe, with a minor interst in becoming a sea power, the navy got more interest. Despite out of the Dalmatian ports, Trieste and Venezia the merchant marine did rather well.
Directives changed in 1860, when Erzherzog (Archduke) Ferdinand Max, later bribed by Napoléon III. to become the emporer of Mexico, emporer Franz Joseph´s next younger brother took charge of the naval interests.
Austro Americana
Erzherzog Ferdinand Maximilian - Spource: Wikipedia
Venezia lost its prime role as naval port after the revolution of 1848 and the naval base was transfered to Trieste as well the export across the seas. And during the Resorgimento Austria-Hungary lost its hold over Lombardia in 1860 and later Venezia in 1866. This was the result of French emporers Napoléon III. diplomancy. But the new kingdom of Italy joined Prussia in the war against Austria-Hungary as it hoped to unite Triests, the Dalmatian coast and Istria with its realm - Italia irredenta. This was in 1914 the reason for Italy to abandom the Triple Allience Treaty and join the Allies against Germany and Austro-Hungary in WWI.
But in 1866 Rearadmiral Tegetthoff could establish in the battle of Lissa the supremancy of Austria-Hungary in the Adriatic. His ramming tactics lead to construction of rambow iron clads, and in the end to bulbous bows, by the observance by US naval engineer David Watson Taylor.
Despite another period of neglecting the navy, the navalism in Austro-Hungary became popular. And at the end of the 19th century came the final turn around, and Austro-Hungary built up a modern and respectable naval power, able to protect the growing merchand fleet and figuring the British to relocate their Mediterranean strategies.
Austro Americana
Coat of arms of the k.u.k. empire Austria-Hungary - Source: Wikipedia
From the first Austrian settlers in Georgia to the big emigration waves in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the method of transportation was the ocean-going ship. The steam engine in particular, as well as subsequent development of ever bigger ocean liners, turned out to be quintessential enablers of European and Austrian emigration in significant numbers.
Today these ships have become sometimes mythical and sentimental statements of a bygone era that encompasses images that range from noble ballrooms at sea, crowded quarters for the less affluent, to the tragedy of the overrated TITANIC. Many of these big liners in transatlantic service were operated by British, German, French or Dutch companies, and over the years they carried millions of European emigrants to the United States and Canada, among them many from Austria-Hungary. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, a shipping company from Austria-Hungary joined the bee-line from Europe to America and back.
MARTHA WASHINGTON, 1908, 8,312 GT, 1914 interned in USA, became a troop transport for the USA during WWI

Regular transatlantic service between England and the United States began in 1840 after a mail contract was awarded to a consortium centered on Samuel Cunard, founder of the CUNARD LINE. Their first ship, the wodden hulled BRITANNIA, sailed from Liverpool to Boston via Halifax, Samuel Cunard’s chosen home town. CUNARD STEAMSHIPS LIMNITED would eventually become the major player on the Europe-America route.
In 1845, the United States Congress, unhappy with a British firm dominating the transatlantic trade and mail route, initiated state-subsidized competition, resulting in the COLLINS LINE (officially NEW YORK & LIVERPOOL UNITED STATES’ MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY), a rival to CUNARD in transatlantic trade, mail and passenger service. Four new ships, the wodden hulled ATLANTIC, ARCTIC, BALTIC and PACIFIC were built for the COLLINS LINE by famed naval designer George Steers. At the time those vessels were not only about twice the size of Cunard’s largest ships, had been far more luxurious, but could also run faster at speeds reaching twelve knots.
On her maiden voyage from New York to Liverpool, the ATLANTIC made the crossing in 10 days and 16 hours, half a day quicker than the previous record held by CUNARD. These ships also boasted additional, new features to increase passenger comfort, including steam-heating, running water, as well as bathroom cabins or a hairdressing saloon one for men and one for women. And to top it, the cusine onboard was made by French chefs!
Despite having ships superior to CUNARD’s in speed and comfort, the company went bankrupt in 1858 after two devasting ship losses. It was during these competitive times on the Atlantic, when European emigration to the United States began to swell. The sheer number of passengers soon presented formidable new business avenues for the ships’ operators. Service was also provided from the Netherlands (HOLLAND -AMERIKA LIJN - HOLLAND AMERICA LINE) and Germany (HAMBURG AMERIKA LINIE, which at times was the world’s largest shipping company). The bulk of transatlantic traffic was handled by those big carriers, and a large number of emigrants from the Habsburg Empire utilized their services until an Austrian player entered the transatlantic shipping game.
Below postcards depicting the life on board MARTHA WASHINGTON - own collection
 AUSTRO AMERICANA was founded in Trieste in 1895 by haulers Gottfried Schenker, August Schenker-Angerer, owners of SCHENKER-SPEDITION and William Burell as a freight carrying steamship line. The interests of the Austrian cotton industry had been in the direction of a national import and export carrier. This gave convidence to the founders the line would be profitable.
Even if Austro-Hungary was dominated by an agricultural economy, its industry was thriving. Especially the railroad industry was remarkable.
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Promotional poster for AUSTRO AMERICANA cruises - own collectio, copy from a book
One sixth of the im- and export of Austria-Hungary was handeled after 1900 by the countries merchand navy. For the empire´s industry a far better solution than having to be dependent of Northgerman ports, or worst Italian ports.
The first four ships had been second hand tonnage from United Kingdom, with which the first crossings had been made in a six week´s schedule to Northamerica departing Trieste and embark in Mobile, Brunswick, Charleston, Wilmington und Newport News. And on demand to other Eastcoast ports. New Orleans began in 1907 (though the New Orleans service was quickly discontinued).The business developed and further four second hand vessels had been bought in 1897 and 1898.
Cosulich made arrangements with the CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIP COMPANY for service from Trieste to Canada which proved to be uneconomical and was cancelled after six voyages.
In 1901 to 1902 the World Economic Depression forced AUSTRO AMERICANA to sell some of its ships. Also 1902 William Burell left the shipping line and sold his shares to the brothers (Gebrüder) Cosulich (kroat. Kosulić). In that wake the equite capital was raized and the 14 vessels of the Cosulich fleet joined that of AUSTRO AMERICANA establishing a joint venture called VEREINIGTE ÖSTERREICHISCHE SCHIFFAHRTSGESELLSCHAFTEN der AUSTRO-AMERICANA und der GEBRÜDER COSULICH (UNIONE AUSTRIACA di NAVIGAZIONE AUSTRO-AMERICANA e FRATELLI COSULICH SOCIETÀ ANONIMA), which restarted regular passenger and freight services from Trieste to North and South America.

Capt. Antonio F. Cosulich began shipping activities in 1857 with the construction of the 500-ton barque FIDES in a shipyard of Cres (Cherso) Island. The Cosulich family expanded its fleet in subsequent years, purchasing steam ships and settling in Trieste, the then leading harbour of the Austro-Hungary Empire, in 1889. Capt. Antonio’s son Callisto Cosulich took over the leadership of the family and merged its activities with other partners, and finally bought the shares of William Burell in 1902. Callisto’s brother Alberto Cosulich also built a shipyard at Monfalcone near Trieste.

The Cosulich family originated from the island of Lussino (today Lošinj, Croatia).
In 1904 the company owned 19 vessels, and it was the first year of passenger transport, as vast numbers of people from Austro-Hungary emigrated into the USA. Up to this year this emigration from the k.u.k. double monarchy was handled by the German companies NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD und HAMBURG AMERIKA LINIE. This opening into passenger trade was too an answer against a treaty of the government of Hungary with CUNARD LINE. The AUSTRO-AMERICANA managers feared with the passenger trade, the cargo business could successive transfer to CUNARD. It was a simple question of surviving.
June 9th 1904 the first passenger carrying vessel, GERTY, left Trieste with 316 emigrants for New York. Depite, against the North German and English competition AUSTRO-AMERICANA could only survive with government subsidies.
Austro Americana
OCEANIA, 1907, 5,497 GT, 1918 mined off Istria and blown up to avoid capture - Source: Austiran Information
Unknown in Austro-Hungary´s industrial and economic history, AUSTRO-AMERICANA grew exceptionally fast, from 2,172,478 kg freight and 4,224 passengers in 1904 to 10,133,490 kg freight and 101, 670 passengers in 1912.
In 1905 AUSTRO-AMERICANA bought a building in Trieste to be used as emigration hostel for 1,500 persons. In 1906 AUSTRO-AMERICANA got the right for transporting Italian emigrants from Napoli and Palermo to Northamerica. In 1907 the line opend its South America service.
While the USA was hit in 1908 by a depression, three chartered vessels of ÖSTERREICHSCHER LLLOYD had to be handed back, and several freighters went into lay up.
1910 AUSTRO-AMERICANA gained the mail contract from Austro-Hungary to North and South America. With that the line had to widen its lines to Southamrica existing since 1907 and establish a service from Trieste to Rio de Janeiro, Santos and BuenosAires.
Austro Americana
SOFIA HOHENBURG, 1905, 5,491 GT, 1920 transferd to Italian flag and scrapped in 1929 - own collection, copy from a postcard
In 1913 AUSTRO-AMERICANA got 1,53 million Kronen subsidies, the same amount was the revenue of 1911. ÖSTERREICHISCHER LLOYD got subsidies, for its lines, mainly in the Mediterranean and to Asia, of 10 millionen Kronen annually. For unwanted competitions among the two shipping companies the lines had been separating lines and services in a special contract - today a case of Kartell building.
September 9th, 1911 KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I. was launched at CANTIERE NAVALE TRIESTINO in Monfalcone. The ceremony was attended by the Erzherzogin (Archduchess) Maria Josepha and Kriegsmarinekommandant Admiral Graf (Count) Rudolf Montecuccoli, beside other state officials, industrials, merchands, clergs and workers.
With a lenght of 145 meter, a beam of 18 meter, a draught of 7,9 meter, 12,800 hp KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I. was the biggest liner built in Austro-Hungary up to that day, as well the biggest liner, and Flaggship, of the Austro-Hungary merchand marine. She had a capacity of 1905 passengers (125 in first class, 550 in second class, and 1230 in third class) and would sail under this name until 1919. While first class passengers were able to travel in great comfort in luxuriously appointed cabins and salons, one can assume that conditions for the more than thousands of men and women in third class were considerably less ritzy. In 1913, the ship had a rather uncomfortable run-in with a whale while en route to the United States, as THE NEW YORK TIMES reported:

The AUSTRO-AMERICANA liner KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I came into port yesterday with a large number of passengers, much cargo, and a story of a whale of great proportions which tried to butt the bottom out of the big liner, and died in the attempt. The KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I was shaken to such an extent that the skipper, all of his junior officers, half of the crew, and scores of the passengers rushed on deck in apprehension. Not until the dead body of the giant mammal was seen floating away to windward did the skipper and his men know what had been under them.

The KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I., completed in 1912, provided service to destinations in South America, as well as to New York City.
In 1912 AUSTRO-AMERICANA operated a total of 28 ships that are recorded by the Ellis Island Foundation with their passenger manifestos.
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Smoking Room First Class of KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I. - Source: Wikipedia
1912 construction of an even bigger liner for AUSTRO-AMERICANA, the KAISERIN ELISABETH, started but was never completed due to complications resulting from WW I. KAISERIN ELISABETH would have been the largest Austrian ship ever built.
ustro Americana
KAISERIN ELISABETH on the slip prior to WWI - Source: Wikipedia
AUSTRO-AMERICANA continued to operate successfully. In 1913, before the outbreak of WW I, the company transported 95% of goods between Austria-Hungary and South America. The outbreak of WW I, passenger service was suspended. 1914 marked the looming end for AUSTRO-AMERICANA in its original form - ships were either impounded or shot at by enemy nations or were put into service for the Austrian Navy (k.u.k. Kriegsmarine) e.g. as hospitalschip.
Austro Americana
MARTHA WASHINGTON as US trooper - Source: Wikipedia
During WW I, part of the fleet was lost and the shipyard destroyed. After the war, in 1918, only ten of once 31 ships remained, and since then the home port of Trieste came under Italian control  Shortly after the war, the Cosulich family, under the leadership of Callisto's sons, resumed shipping activities under COSULICH SOCIETA TRIESTINA di NAVIGAZIONE, the trade name became COSULICH LINE. 
KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I., which was renamed to PRESIDENTE WILSON in 1919 continued her service, and on May 5, 1919, she sailed from Genova to New York again, mostly carrying U.S. soldiers returning home. She was later transferred to LLOYD TRIESTINO in 1930, then she was renamed GANGE, and in 1936, she became the property of ADRIATICA LINE and was again renamed to MARCO POLO. KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I.‘s service ultimately ended when she was scuttled by the German Kriegsmarine on May 12, 1944 in La Spezia. In 1949/50 she was refloated and scrapped.

Oskar, son of Callisto Cosulich drowned July 26th 1926 in the bay of Portorose at the attempt rescuing his son, who had accidently fallen into water.
see: Oskar Cosulich ertrunken. Badener Zeitung, 31. Juli 1926, S. 6, left top
The family rebuilt after WWI the MONFALCONE SHIPYARD, now part of FINCANTIERI. Several new constructions and purchased vessels entered into services to North and South America, notably the SATURNIA and VULCANIA (24.000 grt) and OCEANIA (19.500 grt), built in 1930.
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Longitudunal cutaway of sisters SATURNIA and VULCANIA of COSULICH LINE - courtsey FRATELLI COSULICH
When the liners had been introduced, they had been the largest diesel driven vessels in the world
Other large passenger vessels, such as the BATORY and the PILSUDSKY were built at the MONFALCONE SHIPYARD where an important plant for aircraft construction was also set up.
In 1935, as a consequence of the Italian Government policy fighting against the depression during that period, the COSULICH LINE along with all other Italian shipping enterprises - was nationalised. A new company named ITALIA (Italia Flotte Riuniti Cosulich-Lloyd Sabaudo-NGI) was formed in 1932 by the amalgamation of Italian passenger companies and Cosulich was co-ordinated with this concern, but retained it's own management. In 1937 ITALIA was liquidated and replaced by ITALIA SOCIETA ANONIMA di NAVIGAZIONE which absorbed the COSULICH LINE. The nationalisation of the shipyard at Monfalcone followed shortly thereafter. After WW II, in 1945, the Cosulich family began restoring their shipping business.
A new company called FRATELLI COSULICH (CosulichBrothers) was established with its head office in Trieste and branch offices in Genoa, Naples and Palermo. The primary activities included freight services run by its own and chartered vessels as well as the husbanding of independent liner companies to South American, Red Sea and Mediterranean ports. The operation of passenger vessels, plying between Genoa and North and South America, the Caribbean and Australia, on behalf of HOME LINES, GDYNIA AMERICA LINE and other owners was carried out successfully from 1947 for almost two decades. Such enterprises were the foundation for the modern, progressive and diversified group which today operates in all areas of shipping and covers the globe from its Genoa headquarters.
In 1924 the first Italian commercial airline was born. FRATELLI COSULICH founded SISA-SOCIETÀ ITALIANA SERVIZI AEREI (ITALIAN COMPANY for AIR SERVICES), which in 1926 began its activity by running two flying boat airlines: line No 1 connecting Trieste, Venice, Milan and Turin; line No 2, connecting at first Trieste with Zara (now Zadar), grew in 1928 to cover also Lussino (now Mali Losinj), Ancona and Venice. Between 1929 and 1933 FRATELLI COSULICH introduced new lines connecting Trieste with Genoa and Fiume (now Rijeka). After the war, in 1947, a new SISA was born, with operational bases in Gorizia, with routes to Milan and Rome. In 1949 SISA merged into AVIO LINEE ITALIANE and ceased its activity after performing 605 flights transporting passengers and goods.
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Flyingboat of SISA - courtsey GAVS-TORINO
The era of the jet airplane eventually spelled doom for the great ocean liners, but many aspects of the era can still be found today. The name of AUSTRO-AMERICANA’s co-founder, Gottfried Schenker, today lives on in SCHENKER AG, a leading shipping and logistics company and subsidiary of DEUTSCHE BAHN AG. The CUNARD LINE today is owned by CARNIVAL CORPORATION. After the company had to stop regular service in 1970, it focused on the cruise business. In 2004, however, CUNARD began operation of the QUEEN MARY 2, named a proper ocean liner and the company’s first newly constructed ship in 28 years, mainly on cruises and voyages between Southampton and New York.
The ships of AUSTRO-AMERICANA - courtsey Tamás Balogh ©

Horst Friedrich Mayer, Dieter Winkler: „In allen Häfen war Österreich – Die Österreichisch-Ungarische Handelsmarine.

Edition S, Verlag der Österreichischen Staatsdruckerei Wien, ISBN 3-7046-0079-2
Lawrence Soundhouse, The Naval Policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918: Navalism, Industrial development and the politics of dualism, ISBN 13-9785-5575-3192-6

Fleetlist of AUSTRO AMERICANA in alphabetical order:

Years in Service
Alberta (1)
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1917 sold to Japan renamed Atagasan Maru.
Alberta (2)
1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
1914 interned in Brazil, 1917 seized by Brazil renamed Asia, 1919 ceded to Fabre Line, France.
1933-1935 chartered from Lloyd Triestino.
Anna (1)
1908 sold to Harper & Co, Cardiff renamed Branksome Chine.
Anna (2)
1916 interned at New Orleans, 1921 returned to Cosulich Line, 1925 renamed Anna C, 1932 transferred to Italia, 1937 sold to Achille Lauro. renamed Gianicola.
Anna C

see Anna (2)

1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1926 sold to Florio Soc. Italiana di Nav., Rome.
1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1932 transferred to Italia Soc. di Nav.
1913 sold to Japan renamed Nissei Maru.
1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
ex- Bulgaria, 1913 transferred from HAPAG renamed Canada, 1914 reverted to HAPAG, renamed Bulgaria.
1933 sold to Brazil renamed Piratiny.
1919 tansferred to Italian flag, 1932 transferred to Italia, scrapped.
Clara (1)
1914 interned at Newport News, 1917 transferred to Polish American Nav. Co., renamed Krakow.
Clara (2)
1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
1915 interned in Spain, 1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1931 sold to Greece renamed Annoula.
Dora (1)
1908 sold to French Line renamed Caravelle.
Dora (2)
1925 renamed Dora C, 1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
Dora C

see Dora (2)

ex- Grampus, 1907 purchased from G & J. Burns, Glasgow renamed Elda, 1909 transferred to Achaia SS Co, Patras, 1919 scrapped.
ex- Seal, 1907 purchased from G & J. Burns, Glasgow renamed Eleni, 1909 transferred to Achaia SS Co, Patras, 1920 scrapped.
1903 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1925 scrapped after grounding.
Erny (1)
1912 sold to Japan renamed Niitaka Maru.
Erny (2)
1914 interned at Boston, Mass, 1917 seized by USA, 1920 sold to Polish American Nav. Co renamed Warszawa.
1917 torpedoed and sunk by U-Boat off Ireland.
1903 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1915-1919 interned in Spain, 1919 returned to Cosulich Line, 1925 sold to Malabar Shipping Co, London renamed Carnac.
1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1926 scrapped.
Frieda (1)
1905 wrecked near Tarifa, Spain.
Frieda (2)
1905 transferred from Schenker, Cosulich & Co, Trieste, 1907 renamed Hermine, 1912 sold to French Line.
ex- Star of Victoria, 1911 purchased from Corry & Co. renamed Frigida, 1913 sold to Argentina renamed Moinho Fluminense.
ex- Blanes, 1912 purchased from Spain renamed Gelida, 1915 mined and sunk.
ex- Regina Elena, 1904 purchased from Puglia, Bari renamed Georgia, 1907 sold to Japan renamed Shinsei Maru.
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1928 sold to Anglo Maritime Shipping, London renamed City of Candia.
Gilda (1)
ex- Italia, 1907 purchased from Germany renamed Gilda, feeder ship, 1915 sank off Salvore, Italy.
Gilda (2)
1933 sold to Brazil renamed Port Alegre.
Giulia (1)
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1923 abandoned in North Atlantic and sank.
Giulia (2)
1925 5921 tons, 1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.

Ida (1)
1915 interned in USA, 1917 seized by USA, operated by US Shipping Board, 1920 sold to Polish American Nav. Co. renamed Pulawski, 1922 renamed Ida same owner, 1924 sold to Japan renamed Ida Maru.
Ida (2)
1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
1912 sold to Japan renamed Toyen Maru.
1903 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1916 sold to Japan renamed Tenryu Maru.
ex- Deutscher Kaiser, 1907 purchased from Germany renamed Josephine, 1911 scrapped.
Kaiser Franz Josef I
1919 transferred to Italian flag renamed Presidente Wilson, 1930 transferred to Lloyd Triestino renamed Gange.
1905 transferred from Schenker, Coulich & Co, 1906 sold to Japam renamed Taki Maru.
Laura (1)
1914 interned at Bahia, Brazil, 1917 seized by Brazil renamed Europa, 1919 ceded to France renamed Braga by Fabre Line.
Laura (2)
1925 renamed Laura C, 1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
Laura C

see Laura (2).

ex- Laureldene, 1900 purchased from Dene SS Co, Newcastle renamed Lodovica, 1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1929 sold to Massone & Faridone, Genoa renamed Montevideo.
Lucia (1)
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1913 sold to Japan renamed Nisshu Maru.
Lucia (2)
1925 renamed Lucia C, 1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
Lucia C

1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1913 sold to Japan renamed Nichiyo Maru.
Maria (1)
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1914 seized by Italian Government, 1918 sold to C. Lemos, Chios.
Maria (2)
1937 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1919 transferred to Italian flag, 1923 scrapped.
Martha Washington
1914 interned at New York, 1917 seized by USA, became troopship, 1922 returned to Cosulich Line, 1932 transferred to Italia renamed Tel Aviv, 1934 scrapped.
1924 sold to Veneziana renamed Marco Polo.
1918 mined off Istria and blown up by Austrians to avoid capture.
1913 transferred from HAPAG, 1914 reverted to HAPAG.
Presidente Wilson

tug at Trieste, 1937 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
ex- P. Caland, 1897 purchased from Holland America Line renamed Ressel, 1899 sold to Cie de Nav. Paquet, Marseille renamed Caramanie.
San Giusto
ex- Furst Bismarck, 1919 purchased from HAPAG renamed San Giusto, 1929 scrapped.
1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
Sofia Hohenburg
1920 transferred to Italian flag, 1929 scrapped.
Stella d'Italia
ex- Fort Hamilton, 1926 purchased from Bermuda & West Indies SS Co renamed Stella d'Italia. 1932 transferred to Lloyd Triestino.
Teresa (1)
1905 transferred from Fratelli Cosulich, Trieste, 1914 interned in USA, 1917 taken over by U.S. Shipping Board, retained.
Teresa (2)
1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
1932-1935 chartered from Lloyd Triestino.
1914 interned in USA, 1917 taken over by US Authorities, sold to Kerr Navigation Corp, New York renamed Kerlew.
1932 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon.
Years in Service
Conte Grande
1935 chartered from ITALIA for four round voyages.
1932 transferred to Italia S.A.di Nav. on completion, 1941 torpedoed and sunk by HMS UPHOLDER while trooping.
ordered for Cosulich but never sailed for them, went directly to Italia S.A.di Nav., 1941 torpedoed and sunk by HMS UPHOLDER while trooping.
1935 chartered from ITALIA for two round voyages.

*South America service only.

 Source: The Shiplist


  1. Interesting Article. Hoping that you will continue posting an article having a useful information. Sea Shipping from China to Canada


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Because of an FB pruderie action I remembered a cruise to Sicily, its art and history showing, on board the late ANDREA. Cruise onboard ANDREA in the Mediterranean - a travel review. by Earl of Cruise   The Hercules monument in Kassel, which is listed in the UNESCO Worldheritage list! Delisted by FaceBook because of his "naked butt" ... ridiculous! overbearing! hypocritic! - courtsey GRIMM HEIMAT NORDHESSEN The Hercules monument in Kassel with a naked butt. Goes not at all, found Facebook. Now tourist administratives have put on a bathing suit. No one, neither the false US, or any other pruderie should be imposed on us European. And art is ART! Wether naked or not, and the prude and/or evangikalists have to withstand it. Period! The UNESCO Worldheritage HERKULES - Source: YouTube But it was reminding me on another statue, the charioteer of Mozia, which is now on loan in the BRITISH MUSEUM . But back to the cruise on board ANDREA , now SERENISSIMA, e

ss NORMANDIE 1935-1942 XII - The Most Beautiful Ocean Liner Ever Built

For many, or should I say for "a great many" Ocean Liner Lovers, NORMANDIE is the most beautiful liner ever built. Me, I am among those aficionados.   NORMANDIE was technically decades ahead of time. The vessel got implemented technologies that would have been copied by others, who then claimed to be the first to have. Alternative facts are not a modern days invention of a certain chrétien and his backward oriented entourage ... NORMANDIE´s interior was the peak of ART DECO in France, and was, still is, the peak of chic. Never again any liner, or passenger vessel, except NIEUW AMSTERDAM had been designed exterior and interior that strict in the "guide lines" of the ART DECO (Link in German) movement - as ART DECO is "only" a movement and not a school like BAUHAUS . Therefore the style was in a permanent "move" and development. NORMANDIE, the perfect ocean liner, Le Vaisseau de Lumière, Le Deesse de la Mer - courtsey coloured by Dary


The COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE, known as FRENCH LINE in the English speaking world, or TRANSAT or CGT, had its origins in the victorious end of the Crimean War. S upported by the success and a wave of national consciousness emperor Napoléon III . wanted strengthening the French primacy on the oceans. by Earl of Cruise Houseflag of COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE S.A. - soure: ebay "On   limited space, we put our country on display", a crewmember declared once.  And no other line put in more of its national personality into its product than COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE . The company´s headquarter was situated in Paris, while the homeport of the vessels had been Le Havre . The French navy was gone face since their humiliating defeat by the British under Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar 1805. Foreign lines served the most prestigious and permanent growing route on the Atlantic and delivered French Mail into the risi

Ocean Liners in Movies or Films at Sea (updated Nov 2017)

For liners and the shipping companies movies and films had been a top marketing tool Movies or Films and liners at sea, had been intriguing me since I have read about in my youth in LUXUSLINER - BILDER EINER GROSSEN ZEIT by Lee Server ( THE GOLDEN AGE OF OCEAN LINERS ). But earlier, mot only since my first crossing, I was keen watching movies with liners in it, and disapointed, which was an understatement, when I realized the films have been made in a set ashore in some movie "factory". That was after my first crossing.   by Earl of Cruise an essay in progress `Sabrina´, Humphrey Bogart in the office, while LIBERTÉ is sailing out of New York harbor - screenshot Ocean liners, especially those of the luxury category, had been the location of dramas, love stories, thrillers, suspense and catastrophies sinde film was born, or nearly. In this list, the most descriptions are taken from Wikipedia, as I guess no one can expect having seen all these films ... otherwise I w

Undesirable consequences of travelling - Why tourists destroy the world

Why tourists destroy the world: Mass tourism, especially mass tourism cruises, is becoming harder and harder on people and the environment the consequences are undesirable. What we need is a radical reform of travel and cruises in special. by Earl of Cruise "Good travellers are heartless," Elias Canetti, a German writer and nobel prize winner, born in Bulgaria, wrote 50 years ago. During a visit to Marrakech, the writer observed blind beggars with undisguised interest. Although the original fascination still shines through in his description, it also reflects the horror of his own disrespectful behaviour. Crowds at the Sacré-Coeur © cthkim / Pixabay This disrespectful behavior can be seen not only with beach, fun and party, event, etc. tourists, but unfortunately too with cruise tourists. Modern day cruise lines "invented" the democatization of cruises with prices afordable for everyone, especially at "the lower end of the food chain", as John

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HISTORY - ss LA BOURGOGNE - Women and Children last

What had happend on sinking LA BOURGOGNE? Why had been so few women and children been rescued ? by João Martins , editing by Earl of Cruise ss LA BOURGOGNE - editors collection From our viewpoint of today we see this disaster of ss LA BOURGOGNE as one of egoism and the right of the stronger, with no "heroism", or stepping back for the weak to be saved. And we blame the crew for not doing their duty ... Are we allowed to judge? Are we allowed to chide? Are we alowed to claime it as typical ... for the seamanship of France - I have heard and read so! - ?  No, we have not been on board.  This tragedy is not the place to be chauvinistic! And looking in todays world we see a lot of chauvinism again and egoism! The ss LA BOURGOGNE was a 7,395 GRT French ocean liner built by the FCM in Toulon for the Transatlatic mail and passenger service of Cie. Gle. TRANSATLANTIQUE and completed in 1886. She was an iron and steel construction, 150 metres long, had two funnels an

Destination - Capri, Dolce Vita and Legends - a cruise on board ANDREA

Capri filled with legends, over boarding beauty and Italian `dolce vita´ More than 190 years after the German painter August Kopisch's `discovery´ of the Grotta Azzurra in 1826, Capri ( it is pronounced `KAH pree´, with an accent on the first syllable ) is the most sophisticated island in the Mediterranean. The sound of its name evokes nostalgia, beauty and enthusiasm. And more so, each one of us can and will find its `own´ Capri. by Earl of Cruise Grotta Azzura on Capri - Source: Atlantide Phototravel © Corbis During a Mediterranean cruise from Barcelona to Venezia on board the yacht like ANDREA of ELEGANT CRUISES & TOURS one of the beautiful destinations has been Capri ... Early morning, approaching Capri - © Earl of Cruise Capri smells of sweet life, light moments, riches and pomp. It is the island of love and happiness. Capri is the place for yearning, dreams and wonderful craziness. Capri is a myths in the Mediterranean Sea, unique and tender,